| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Definition:  Vacuum is best characterized as a lack of atmosphere (i.e. air, oxygen or other gases). Hence when metals or alloys are heated to high temperatures in a vacuum furnace, there is essentially no oxygen present to oxidize and discolor the surface of the material. Unfortunately, vacuum annealing is not condusive to strand annealing (i.e. uncoiling, heating and recoiling). Titanium rolled at Ulbrich is annealed in coil form in vacuum furnaces by outside heat treaters.