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General Properties of Steels

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A worker presents a part made of stainless steel
Sean Gallup/Getty Images News/Getty Images

Different types of steel are produced according to the properties required for their application, and various grading systems are used to distinguish steels based on these properties. According to the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), steels can be broadly categorized into four groups based on their chemical compositions:

  1. Carbon Steels
  2. Alloy Steels
  3. Stainless Steels
  4. Tool Steels

The following table lists the properties of steels based on the categories noted above. Properties determined at room temperature (77°F/25°C).

General Properties of Steels:

Properties Carbon Steels Alloy Steels Stainless Steels Tool Steels
Density (1000 kg/m3) 7.85 7.85 7.75-8.1 7.72-8.0
Elastic Modulus (GPa) 190-210 190-210 190-210 190-210
Poisson's Ratio 0.27-0.3 0.27-0.3 0.27-0.3 0.27-0.3
Thermal Expansion (10-6/K) 11-16.6 9.0-15 9.0-20.7 9.4-15.1
Melting Point (°C)     1371-1454  
Thermal Conductivity (W/m-K) 24.3-65.2 26-48.6 11.2-36.7 19.9-48.3
Specific Heat (J/kg-K) 450-2081 452-1499 420-500  
Electrical Resistivity (10-9W-m) 130-1250 210-1251 75.7-1020  
Tensile Strength (MPa) 276-1882 758-1882 515-827 640-2000
Yield Strength (MPa) 186-758 366-1793 207-552 380-440
Percent Elongation (%) 10-32 4-31 12-40 5-25
Hardness (Brinell 3000kg) 86-388 149-627 137-595 210-620

Source: www.efunda.com

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