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Metals: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
What Are the Different Types of Steel?
According to the World Steel Association, there are over 3,500 different grades of steel, encompassing unique physical, chemical and environmental properties. In essence, steel is composed of iron and carbon, although it is the amount of carbon, as well as the level of impurities and additional alloying elements that determines the properties of each steel grade.
Unique Properties: How Metal Conducts Electricity
Electrical conductivity in metals is a result of the movement of electrically charged particles. The atoms of metal elements are characterized by the presence of valence electrons - electrons in the outer shell of an atom that are free to move about. It is these 'free electrons' that allow metals to conduct an electric current.
Types of Corrosion
Corrosion comes in many different forms and can be classified by the cause of the chemical deterioration of a metal. Listed below are common types of corrosion.
Methods for Slowing and Stopping Corrosion
In virtually all situations, metal corrosion can be managed, slowed or even stopped by using the proper techniques. Corrosion prevention can take a number of forms depending on the circumstances of the metal being corroded. Corrosion prevention techniques can be generally classified into 6 groups:
How to Prevent and Identify Corrosion
Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal as a result of chemical reactions between it and the surrounding environment.
The 10 Biggest Copper Producers
The world's ten biggest copper producers accounted for over 85 million metric tons of copper production in 2010. The list below is based-upon output from mines according to research done by the consulting company CRU. Production figures are in thousands of metric tons.
How Malleability Varies by Metal:
What is malleability? Malleability is a physical property of metals that defines the ability to be hammered, pressed or rolled into thin sheets without breaking. In other words, it is the property of a metal to deform under compression.
Metal Profile: Brass
What is brass? Brass is a binary alloy composed of copper and zinc that has been produced for millennia and is valued for its workability, hardness, corrosion resistance and attractive appearance. The exact properties of different brasses depend on the composition of the brass alloy, particularly the copper-zinc ratio.
Ductility
Definition of the material property of ductility.
The 10 Biggest Steel Producers
Total crude steel production in 2010 exceeded 1.4 billion metric tonnes, up 15% from 2009. The world's ten largest steel producers accounted for approximately 25% of this production.
Definition of 'Heat Treatment'
This article describes heat treatment, the process of cooling and heating metals. Learn this definition and also common heat treatments.
Copper, The Great Conductor
Complete copper profile with physical properties, history, market information, common alloys and interesting facts.
How to Price Scrap Metal
Article describing the steps necessary to price scrap metal properly, including tips on identification and market resources.
Definition of Rockwell Hardness (HRB or HRC)
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Proof Stress
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
What's Your Gold Really Worth?
With the price of gold soaring, many companies are looking for ways to get their hands on your unwanted gold. Most companies ask you to send your scrap gold pieces to them for analysis. Once they determine a value, you are then sent payment. But before you mail away your gold, you may want to determine for yourself what the melt value - the market value of the gold contained within the piece - should be.
Steel Applications
What is steel used for? Steel is both the most widely used and most recycled metal material on earth. From stainless and high temperature steels to flat carbon products, steel's various forms and alloys offer different properties to meet a wide range of applications. For these reasons, as well as the metal's combination of high strength and a relatively low production cost, steel is now used in countless products.
How to Calculate Rate of Corrosion
The rate of corrosion is the speed at which a metal deteriorates in a specific environment. The rate, or speed, is dependent upon environmental conditions as well as the type, and condition, of the metal.
Galvanic corrosion explained
Galvanic corrosion is caused by the existence of a galvanic cell - essentially two metals submersed in an electrolyte - that results in an attack on
Metal Profile: Aluminum
What is aluminum? Aluminum (also known as aluminium) is the most abundant metal element in the earth's crust. And it's a good thing too, because we use a lot of it. About 41 million tons are smelted each year and employed in a wide arrange of applications.
The Effect of Alloying Agents on Steel Properties
Different alloying elements each have their own affect on the properties of steel. Some of the properties that can be improved through alloying include:
6 Steps to Modern Steel Production:
How is steel made? Methods for manufacturing steel have evolved significantly since industrial production began in the late 19th century. Modern methods, however, are still based the same premise as the Bessemer Process, namely, how to most efficiently use oxygen to lower the carbon content in iron.
Practical Applications of Brass
Brass's valuable properties and relative ease of production has made it one of the mostly widely used alloys. While compiling a complete list of all of brass's applications would be a colossal task, we can get an idea of the breadth of industries and the types of products in which brass is found by categorizing and summarizing some end-uses based on the grade of brass used:
Free Metalworking Projects and Plans - Page 1
Free metalworking plans, drawings and instructions for do-it-yourself metal shop projects from your About.com Guide
Quenching Explained
Description of the heat treatment process of quenching.
Definition of "Normalization"
Definition of the heat treatment process of normalization.
What is Zinc?
Complete zinc profile with physical properties, history, market information, common alloys and interesting facts.
The 10 Biggest Nickel Producers
The world's ten largest refined nickel producers accounted for over 1 million metric tons of nickel in 2011. The list below was compiled based on information...
What Are the General Properties of Steels?
The following table lists the properties of steels at room temperature (25°C).
Definition of Cold Working
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
The Composition of Common Brass Alloys
The chart below summarizes the composition of a number of commonly used brass alloys:
304, steel, stainless, metal, 304L, corrosion
Type 304 is the most widely used austenitic stainless steel. Also known as '18-8' stainless because of its 18 percent chromium content and 8 percent nickel content, 304 stainless steel has good forming and welding properties, as well as strong corrosion resistance and...
Annealing
Description of the heat treatment process of annealing.
Tempering
Tempering is a heat treatment process that improves the ductility and toughness of metals. Learn more about tempering.
Steel History
By the 17th century, iron's properties were well understood, but increasing urbanization in Europe demanded a more versatile structural metal.
Definition of Solution Annealing
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
316, steel, stainless, metal, 316L, corrosion
Type 316 steel is an austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steel that contains between two and three percent molybdenum. The molybdenum content increases corrosion resistance, improves resistance to pitting in chloride ion solutions and...
Metal Profile: Titanium
What is titanium? Titanium is a strong and lightweight refractory metal. Alloys of titanium are critical to the aerospace industry but, due to their numerous unique properties, are also used in medical, chemical and military applications, as well as in sporting goods.
The History of Brass
Not long after the Romans had discovered how to produce brass, the alloy started to be used in coinage in areas of modern day Turkey. Brass coins soon spread throughout the Roman Empire and there is evidence that calamine brass production moved into northern Europe under Rome's authority.
What is Cobalt?
What is cobalt? Cobalt is a shiny, brittle metal that is used to produce strong, corrosion and heat resistant alloys, permanent magnets and hard metals.
What is Glencore International?
Glencore International AG (Glencore) is involved in the production, marketing and distribution of energy, agricultural and metal commodities. With its head office based in Baar, Switzerland, Glencore and its subsidiaries have operations in 30 countries and over 56,000 employees.
Free Go-Kart Plans and Designs - Page 1
Free go-cart plans and instructions. Build your own go-carts, scooters, motorbikes, all terrain vehicals.
Metal Profile: Tungsten
What is tungsten? Tungsten is a dull silver-colored metal with the highest melting point of any pure metal. Also known as wolfram, from which the element takes its symbol, W, tungsten is more resistant to fracturing than diamond and is much harder than steel.
What is Austenitic Stainless Steel?
What is Austenitic Stainless Steel? Austenitic steels are non-magnetic stainless steels that contain high levels of chromium and nickel, and low levels of carbon. Known for the formability and resistance to corrosion, austenitics are the most widely used grade of stainless steel.
Metal Profile: Stainless Steel
The term 'stainless steel' refers to a group corrosion resistant steels that contain a minimum of 10.5 percent chromium. Once this threshold content of chromium is added...
Copper Production
How is copper produced? Copper is typically extracted from oxide and sulfide ores that contain between 0.5 and 2.0 percent copper. The refining techniques employed by copper producers depend on the ore type, as well as other economic and environmental factors. Currently, about 80 percent of global copper production is extracted from sulfide sources.
Copper Applications
From common household electrical wiring to boat propellers and photovoltaic cells, copper and its alloys are employed in a myriad of end-uses.
Platinum Group Metals (PGMs)
The PGMs are the densest known metal elements. Exceptionally rare, the six metals naturally occur in the same ore bodies. They are highly durable and, due to their high value, often recycled, giving them long life cycles.
ferritic, steel, metal, austenitic, grades,...
Ferritic steels are high chromium, magnetic stainless steels that have a low carbon content. Known for their good ductility, resistance to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, ferritic steels are commonly used in automotive applications, kitchenware and industrial equipment.
Metal Profile: Nickel
What is nickel? Nickel is a strong, lustrous, silvery-white metal that was not isolated by scientists until the mid-18th century, but is now a staple of our daily lives and can be found in everything from the batteries that power our television remotes to the stainless steel that is used to make our kitchen sinks.
Malleability
Definition of the material property of malleability.
What is Bismuth?
What is bismuth? Bismuth is a silvery and brittle metal that is frequently found in low-melt alloys. Demand for bismuth metal has grown over the past 20 years in large part due to its effective use as a substitute for lead.
Metal Profile: Steel
What is steel? Steel, the world's foremost construction material, is an alloy of iron, containing between 0.2% and 2% carbon (by weight).
The 10 Largest Uranium Mines
The world's 10 largest producing uranium mines accounted for 29,337 tonnes of uranium (tU), or 55% of global production in 2010. Statistics provided by the World Nuclear Association.
Metal Profile: Tin
Tin is a soft, silvery-white metal that is very light and easy to melt. Being so soft, tin is rarely used as a pure metal.
Definition of Welding
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Solution Heat Treatment
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
What are Refractory Metals?
The term 'refractory metal' is used to describe a group of metal elements that have exceptionally high melting points and are resistant to wear, corrosion and deformation.
Definition of Elongation
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
The 10 Biggest Platinum Producers
Production statistics are compiled from company annual reports and operation reports from company websites (fiscal year 2012). Refined platinum production numbers can be found beside each company's name and are indicated in ounces.
Oxidation
Definition of the chemical process of corrosion in metals.
Metal Profile: Platinum
Platinum is a dense, stable and rare metal that is often used in jewelry for its attractive, silver-like appearance, as well as in medical, electronic and chemical applications due to its various and unique chemical and physical properties.
Metal Profile: Magnesium
What is magnesium? Magnesium is the lightest of all the metal elements and is primarily used in structural alloys due to its light weight, strength and corrosion resistance.
What are base metals?
The term 'base metals' commonly refers to the industrial, non-ferrous metals: copper, lead, nickel and zinc.
Metal Profile: Chromium
What is chromium? Chromium metal is most widely recognized for its use in chromium plating (which is often referred to simply as 'chrome'), but its largest use is as an ingredient in stainless steels. Both applications benefit from chromium's hardness, resistance to corrosion and ability to be polished for a lustrous appearance.
The 10 Biggest Tin Producers
Beside each company name is the country where its primary operations are located and the company's total tin production (tonnes) in 2012.
A Short History of Steel: Part II
The growth of railroads during the 19th century in both Europe and America put great pressure on the iron industry, which still struggled with inefficient production processes. Yet steel was still unproven as a structural metal and production was slow and costly. That was until 1856, when Henry Bessemer came up with a more effective way to introduce oxygen into molten iron in order to reduce the carbon content.
The 10 Biggest Palladium Producers
Although total primary refined palladium output was around 6.54 million ounces, record demand for palladium autocatalysts and increased investment demand pushed the market...
Definition of Critical Temperature
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Copper History Pt. I
Copper is considered to be one of the first metals to be used by humans. The main reason for its early discovery and use is that copper can naturally occur in relatively pure forms.
Osmium Prices
Prices indicated below reflect the prices published on the first day of each month per one troy ounce (31.1g) of osmium.
10 Biggest Aluminum Producers in the World
The ten largest aluminum refiners accounted for over 20 million metric tons of aluminum produced in 2011, or about half of total global output. The list below is based-upon
Definition of Springback
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Metallographic Etching
Article describing the technique and purpose of metallographic etching.
Process Annealing
Definition of the heat treatment process of process annealing.
Free Metalworking Projects and Plans - Page 2
Free metalworking plans, drawings and instructions for do-it-yourself metal shop projects from your About.com Guide
Strength
Definition of the material property of strength.
The 10 Biggest Silver Producers
The world's ten largest silver producers accounted for over 270 million ounces of the metal in 2012, or approximately 35 percent of global mine production. Beside each company name is the country where its primary operations are located and its total silver production (millions of ounces) in 2012.
Three Ways to Price Your Scrap Metal
Heavy Metal: scrap price bulletin scrap metal prices non ferrous metals american metals industry benchmarks
Metal Profile: Lithium
Lithium is a soft, light and reactive metal that is critical to modern portable and rechargeable batteries. The silvery-white metal is reactive with both air and water, as a result of it only having a single electron in its outermost shell. In contact with air, it quickly oxidizes to form a black layer, and in contact with water lithium releases
Definition of Critical Cooling Rate
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Precipitation Hardening
Definition of the heat treatment process of precipitation hardening.
Definition of Killed Steel
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Metals and Commodities Prices
Current and historical metal prices, from your About.com Guide. The most comprehensive online guide for the metal industry including material buyers guides, global supplier lists, e-commerce sites, software & shareware, industry news, and metallurgical data.
The Top 10 Molybdenum Producers 2013
According to the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA), molybdenum production reached a new high of 539.2 million pounds in 2013. The ten largest molybdenum producers accounted for over 60 percent of this total.
Definition of Toughness
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
posco, steel, metal, korea
Established in 1968, Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO) operates two integrated steel mills in South Korea and a joint venture with U.S. Steel (USS-POSCO) in California. According to the World Steel Association, POSCO was the world’s third biggest producer of crude steel in 2010 (after ArcelorMittal and Baosteel), manufacturing over 30 million tonnes.
Definition of Ore
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
stainless, steel, 200, series, austenitic,...
The 200 series is a class of austenitic stainless steels that are characterized by having a low-nickel content. They are also referred to as chrome-manganese (CrMn) stainless steel.
Metalloids
What are metalloids? Metalloids, or semi-metals, are a group of elements that possess both properties of metals and non-metals.
Free Metalworking Projects and Plans - Page 3
Free metalworking plans, drawings and instructions for do-it-yourself metal shop projects from your About.com Guide
Definition of Gauge Length
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Cupronickel
What is cupronickel? Cupronickel (also referred to as “cupernickel” or copper-nickel alloy) refers to a group of copper-nickel alloys that utilize iron and manganese and are used in saltwater environments due to their corrosion resistant properties.
What Is Tin?
Complete tin profile with physical properties, history, market information, common alloys and interesting facts.
Metals & Magnetism
What are magnets? Magnets are materials that produce magnetic fields, which attract specific metals. Every magnet has a north and a south pole. Opposite poles attract, while like poles repel.
Royalty Free Metals Photo Gallery
Royalty Free Metals Photo Gallery Free digital metals photos for any personal or commercial use. Images
Top Tens: The World's Largest Metal Producers
Below are lists of the largest producers of various metals. Lists are compiled based on physical production of each metal (unless otherwise noted), and not on any commercial valuation (e.g. sales, revenues, market capitalization).
Definition of Malleability
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of SG Iron
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Properties and Composition of 201 Stainless
Type 201 is part of the 200 series of austenitic stainless steels. Originally developed to conserve nickel this family of stainless steels is characterized by low-nickel content. Type 201 can substitute for type 301 in many applications, but is less corrosion resistant than its counterpart, particularly...
metals, manganese, properties, characteristics,...
What is manganese? Manganese is a key component in the production of steel. Although classified as a minor metal, the quantity of manganese produced worldwide each year falls behind only iron, aluminum, copper and zinc.
Learn How to Make a Steel Barrel BBQ
As far as backyard metal projects go, what could be more appropriate for a long summer day than a barrel barbecue? For myself, a great project has two qualities: It is inexpensive to make and is practical to use. A barrel barbecue is both, and can be completed easily in one day.
What is iron?
What is iron? Iron's use by humans dates back about 5000 years. It is the second most abundant metal element in the earth's crust and is primarily used to produce steel, one of the most important structural materials in the world.
Monel Alloys
What are monel alloys? Monel, or nickel-copper, alloys are nickel-base alloys that contain between 29 and 33 percent copper. Such alloys exhibit a number of beneficial properties, including:
Definition of Hardenability
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Strain
: Strain is the definition of how much a material has been stretched (or compressed) when compared to
Metal Profile: Rhodium
What is rhodium? Rhodium is a rare platinum group metal (PGM) that is chemically stable at high temperatures, resistant to corrosion and mainly used in the production of automobile catalytic converters.
Metals to Avoid for Body Piercing and Implants
Metals to Avoid for Body Piercing and Implants There are only a few types of metals suitable for body
How is Gold Recycled?
According to the World Gold Council, recycled sources accounted for about 1,370 metric tonnes of gold in 2013, or roughly one-third of...
Definition of Alloy
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Fatigue
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
How are Metal Prices Determined?
Metal prices are not only important to manufacturers and end-users, but have long been used as a tool for monitoring economic and market conditions. But how do markets determine metal prices?
Definition of Normalising
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Material Properties & Data
Material properties from your About.com Guide: rockwell c scale material properties data bibliography netguide metals and alloys coefficient of thermal expansion
Patina
'Patina' is a term that refers to the blue-green layer of corrosion that develops on the surface of copper when exposed to sulfur and oxide compounds. As copper is exposed to natural or human-induced corrosive attack, its color changes from the iridescent, golden red normally associated with copper to a deep brown and, finally, a blue-green hue.
Metal Profile: Lead
What is lead? Lead is a soft, grey, lustrous metal with a high density and low melting point. Although hazardous to our health, humans have been extracting and using lead for over 6000 years
Free Metalworking Projects and Plans - Page 7
Hundreds of free metalworking plans, drawings and instructions for do-it-yourself metal shop projects from your About.com Guide.
Beijing's Bird's Nest Stadium
The Beijing National Stadium - more often referred to as the Bird's Nest stadium - took five years to complete and was constructed using 42,000 tons of steel, making it the largest steel structure in the world. Measuring 330 meters long, 220 meters wide and 69.2 meters tall, the design of the Bird's Nest stadium design is based on 24 trussed columns, weighing 1000 tons each.
Iridium Prices
Johnson Matthey is a major supplier of iridium and platinum group metals (PGMs). Prices indicated below are monthly averages, calculated using prices offered by all three trading locations, per troy ounce (31.1g) of iridium.
Definition of Heat Number
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Annealing
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Toughness
Definition of the material property of toughness.
Definition of Hardening
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Oxy-Acetylene Welding
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
What is Cold Working?
Cold working refers to the process of strengthening a metal by plastic deformation. Also referred to as work hardening, the process involves...
Guest Articles
How to submit guest articles or press releases to the About.com Metals Industry site.
Metal Alloys
What are metal alloys? Alloys are metallic compounds composed of one metal and one or more metal, or non-metal, elements. Examples of common alloys include...
Company Profile: BHP Billiton
BHP Billiton is one of the world's largest mining and resource companies with roughly 100,000 employees in over 25 countries. The company is headquartered in Melbourne, Australia and listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (as BHP Billiton Ltd.), as well as on the London Stock Exchange and the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (as BHP Billiton Plc).
Cryogenic Heat Treatment
Definition of the cryogenic heat treatment process.
The 10 Biggest Nickel Producers 2013
According to the International Nickel Study Group (INSG), global refined nickel production exceeded 1.9 million metric tonnes in 2013. The world's ten largest nickel producers accounted for...
Definition of Composite Material
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Grain Size Measurement
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Metal Hydrides
Definition of the materials known as metal hydrides.
Metal Profile: Mercury
What is mercury? Mercury, or 'quicksilver' as it is otherwise known, is a dense, toxic metal element that exists in liquid form at room temperature. Produced and studied for millennia, mercury's use has steadily declined since the 1980s as a result of greater attention to the negative health impacts that it has on humans and the environment.
About Metals Glossary
Glossary of metal terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
What Is Mischmetal?
Profile of mischmetal with physical properties, history, industrial information and applications.
Carburization Explained
Carburizing, also referred to as carburization or case hardening, is a heat treatment process that hardens the surface of steel products through the addition of carbon and, consequent, formation of carbides.
The 10 Biggest Copper Producers 2013
The world's ten largest copper producers accounted for over 10 million metric tons of copper production in 2013, or 48 percent of total worldwide refined copper production. Leading the way again in 2013 was Chile's Codelco who produced nearly one-tenth of all refined copper. The list below is based-upon refined metal production according to research done by the consulting company CRU.
Definition of Ductility
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Metal Injection Molding Explained
Metal Injection Molding (MIM) is a metal working process that involves converting metal powders into intricately shaped, specialized metal parts.
Metal Profile: Iridium
Iridium is a hard, brittle and lustrous platinum group metal (PGM) that is very stable at high temperatures as well as in chemical environments.
Physical Properties of Beryllium Copper
Standard beryllium copper alloys contain close to 2 percent beryllium, while the beryllium content in proprietary alloys can range from 1.5 to 2.7 percent. The standards in the chart below should be for reference only, as each can be subject to considerable variation depending upon conditions of heat treatment.
Physical and Chemical Properties of Beryllium
The physical and chemical properties of beryllium compared with other common alloying elements
What is Moly?
What is molybdenum? Molybdenum (often referred to as 'Moly') metal is valued as an alloying agent in structural and stainless steels because of its strength, corrosion resistance and ability to hold shape and operate at high temperatures.
Free Metalworking Projects and Plans - Page 8
Free metalworking plans, drawings and instructions for do-it-yourself metal shop projects from your About.com Guide.
What is Palladium? History and uses of a rare...
What is palladium? Palladium is a soft, rare platinum group metal (PGM) that is valued for its catalytic properties.
Definition of Allotropy
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Reduction of Area
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
What are Minor Metals?
What are minor metals? The term 'minor metals' is used to describe about 40 elemental metals that are normally produced as by-products and not traded on any major exchanges.
Definition of Mechanical Properties
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
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