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Metals: Most Popular Articles

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What Are the Different Types of Steel?
According to the World Steel Association, there are over 3,500 different grades of steel, encompassing unique physical, chemical and environmental properties. In essence, steel is composed of iron and carbon, although it is the amount of carbon, as well as the level of impurities and additional alloying elements that determines the properties of each steel grade.
Types of Corrosion
Corrosion comes in many different forms and can be classified by the cause of the chemical deterioration of a metal. Listed below are common types of corrosion.
How to Identify and Prevent Corrosion
Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal as a result of chemical reactions between it and the surrounding environment.
Methods for Slowing and Stopping Corrosion
In virtually all situations, metal corrosion can be managed, slowed or even stopped by using the proper techniques. Corrosion prevention can take a number of forms depending on the circumstances of the metal being corroded. Corrosion prevention techniques can be generally classified into 6 groups:
Unique Properties: How Metal Conducts Electricity
Electrical conductivity in metals is a result of the movement of electrically charged particles. The atoms of metal elements are characterized by the presence of valence electrons - electrons in the outer shell of an atom that are free to move about. It is these 'free electrons' that allow metals to conduct an electric current.
How to Price Scrap Metal
Article describing the steps necessary to price scrap metal properly, including tips on identification and market resources.
The 10 Biggest Copper Producers
The world's ten biggest copper producers accounted for over 85 million metric tons of copper production in 2010. The list below is based-upon output from mines according to research done by the consulting company CRU. Production figures are in thousands of metric tons.
How Malleability Varies by Metal:
What is malleability? Malleability is a physical property of metals that defines the ability to be hammered, pressed or rolled into thin sheets without breaking. In other words, it is the property of a metal to deform under compression.
The 10 Biggest Platinum Producers
Production statistics are compiled from company annual reports and operation reports from company websites (fiscal year 2012). Refined platinum production numbers can be found beside each company's name and are indicated in ounces.
Copper, The Great Conductor
Complete copper profile with physical properties, history, market information, common alloys and interesting facts.
Galvanic corrosion explained
Galvanic corrosion is caused by the existence of a galvanic cell - essentially two metals submersed in an electrolyte - that results in an attack on
What's Your Gold Really Worth?
With the price of gold soaring, many companies are looking for ways to get their hands on your unwanted gold. Most companies ask you to send your scrap gold pieces to them for analysis. Once they determine a value, you are then sent payment. But before you mail away your gold, you may want to determine for yourself what the melt value - the market value of the gold contained within the piece - should be.
6 Steps to Modern Steel Production:
How is steel made? Methods for manufacturing steel have evolved significantly since industrial production began in the late 19th century. Modern methods, however, are still based the same premise as the Bessemer Process, namely, how to most efficiently use oxygen to lower the carbon content in iron.
Ductility
Definition of the material property of ductility.
Metal Profile: Brass
What is brass? Brass is a binary alloy composed of copper and zinc that has been produced for millennia and is valued for its workability, hardness, corrosion resistance and attractive appearance. The exact properties of different brasses depend on the composition of the brass alloy, particularly the copper-zinc ratio.
The Effect of Alloying Agents on Steel Properties
Different alloying elements each have their own affect on the properties of steel. Some of the properties that can be improved through alloying include:
Steel Applications
What is steel used for? Steel is both the most widely used and most recycled metal material on earth. From stainless and high temperature steels to flat carbon products, steel's various forms and alloys offer different properties to meet a wide range of applications. For these reasons, as well as the metal's combination of high strength and a relatively low production cost, steel is now used in countless products.
The 10 Biggest Steel Producers
Total crude steel production in 2010 exceeded 1.4 billion metric tonnes, up 15% from 2009. The world's ten largest steel producers accounted for approximately 25% of this production.
Definition of 'Heat Treatment'
This article describes heat treatment, the process of cooling and heating metals. Learn this definition and also common heat treatments.
Definition of Rockwell Hardness (HRB or HRC)
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Proof Stress
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
How to Calculate Rate of Corrosion
The rate of corrosion is the speed at which a metal deteriorates in a specific environment. The rate, or speed, is dependent upon environmental conditions as well as the type, and condition, of the metal.
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Free go-cart plans and instructions. Build your own go-carts, scooters, motorbikes, all terrain vehicals.
Metal Profile: Aluminum
What is aluminum? Aluminum (also known as aluminium) is the most abundant metal element in the earth's crust. And it's a good thing too, because we use a lot of it. About 41 million tons are smelted each year and employed in a wide arrange of applications.
What Are the General Properties of Steels?
The following table lists the properties of steels at room temperature (25°C).
The 10 Biggest Nickel Producers
The world's ten largest refined nickel producers accounted for over 1 million metric tons of nickel in 2011. The list below was compiled based on information...
The History of Brass
Not long after the Romans had discovered how to produce brass, the alloy started to be used in coinage in areas of modern day Turkey. Brass coins soon spread throughout the Roman Empire and there is evidence that calamine brass production moved into northern Europe under Rome's authority.
The 10 Largest Uranium Mines
The world's 10 largest producing uranium mines accounted for 29,337 tonnes of uranium (tU), or 55% of global production in 2010. Statistics provided by the World Nuclear Association.
Steel History
By the 17th century, iron's properties were well understood, but increasing urbanization in Europe demanded a more versatile structural metal.
Free Metalworking Projects and Plans - Page 1
Free metalworking plans, drawings and instructions for do-it-yourself metal shop projects from your About.com Guide
Oxidation
Definition of the chemical process of corrosion in metals.
Definition of Killed Steel
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of "Normalization"
Definition of the heat treatment process of normalization.
304, steel, stainless, metal, 304L, corrosion
Type 304 is the most widely used austenitic stainless steel. Also known as '18-8' stainless because of its 18 percent chromium content and 8 percent nickel content, 304 stainless steel has good forming and welding properties, as well as strong corrosion resistance and...
Practical Applications of Brass
Brass's valuable properties and relative ease of production has made it one of the mostly widely used alloys. While compiling a complete list of all of brass's applications would be a colossal task, we can get an idea of the breadth of industries and the types of products in which brass is found by categorizing and summarizing some end-uses based on the grade of brass used:
The Composition of Common Brass Alloys
The chart below summarizes the composition of a number of commonly used brass alloys:
Platinum Group Metals (PGMs)
The PGMs are the densest known metal elements. Exceptionally rare, the six metals naturally occur in the same ore bodies. They are highly durable and, due to their high value, often recycled, giving them long life cycles.
Three Ways to Price Your Scrap Metal
Heavy Metal: scrap price bulletin scrap metal prices non ferrous metals american metals industry benchmarks
ferritic, steel, metal, austenitic, grades,...
Ferritic steels are high chromium, magnetic stainless steels that have a low carbon content. Known for their good ductility, resistance to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, ferritic steels are commonly used in automotive applications, kitchenware and industrial equipment.
Copper Production
How is copper produced? Copper is typically extracted from oxide and sulfide ores that contain between 0.5 and 2.0 percent copper. The refining techniques employed by copper producers depend on the ore type, as well as other economic and environmental factors. Currently, about 80 percent of global copper production is extracted from sulfide sources.
What are Refractory Metals?
The term 'refractory metal' is used to describe a group of metal elements that have exceptionally high melting points and are resistant to wear, corrosion and deformation.
Quenching Explained
Description of the heat treatment process of quenching.
What is Zinc?
Complete zinc profile with physical properties, history, market information, common alloys and interesting facts.
The 10 Biggest Palladium Producers
Although total primary refined palladium output was around 6.54 million ounces, record demand for palladium autocatalysts and increased investment demand pushed the market...
Metals and Commodities Prices
Current and historical metal prices, from your About.com Guide. The most comprehensive online guide for the metal industry including material buyers guides, global supplier lists, e-commerce sites, software & shareware, industry news, and metallurgical data.
Metal Profile: Tungsten
What is tungsten? Tungsten is a dull silver-colored metal with the highest melting point of any pure metal. Also known as wolfram, from which the element takes its symbol, W, tungsten is more resistant to fracturing than diamond and is much harder than steel.
Annealing
Description of the heat treatment process of annealing.
Definition of Cold Working
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Copper Applications
From common household electrical wiring to boat propellers and photovoltaic cells, copper and its alloys are employed in a myriad of end-uses.
316, steel, stainless, metal, 316L, corrosion
Type 316 steel is an austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steel that contains between two and three percent molybdenum. The molybdenum content increases corrosion resistance, improves resistance to pitting in chloride ion solutions and...
Definition of Solution Annealing
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Metallographic Etching
Article describing the technique and purpose of metallographic etching.
Metal Profile: Platinum
Platinum is a dense, stable and rare metal that is often used in jewelry for its attractive, silver-like appearance, as well as in medical, electronic and chemical applications due to its various and unique chemical and physical properties.
Tempering
Tempering is a heat treatment process that improves the ductility and toughness of metals. Learn more about tempering.
10 Biggest Aluminum Producers in the World
The ten largest aluminum refiners accounted for over 20 million metric tons of aluminum produced in 2011, or about half of total global output. The list below is based-upon
The Top 10 Zinc Producers 2013
According to the International Lead & Zinc Study Group, refined zinc production reached 12.8 million tonnes (or about 28 million pounds) in 2013. The ten largest...
Definition of Elongation
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
What is Glencore International?
Glencore International AG (Glencore) is involved in the production, marketing and distribution of energy, agricultural and metal commodities. With its head office based in Baar, Switzerland, Glencore and its subsidiaries have operations in 30 countries and over 56,000 employees.
Metal Profile: Magnesium
What is magnesium? Magnesium is the lightest of all the metal elements and is primarily used in structural alloys due to its light weight, strength and corrosion resistance.
Definition of Solution Heat Treatment
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
What are Base Metals?
The term 'base metals' commonly refers to the industrial, non-ferrous metals: copper, lead, nickel and zinc.
Metal Profile: Nickel
What is nickel? Nickel is a strong, lustrous, silvery-white metal that was not isolated by scientists until the mid-18th century, but is now a staple of our daily lives and can be found in everything from the batteries that power our television remotes to the stainless steel that is used to make our kitchen sinks.
Metal Profile: Steel
What is steel? Steel, the world's foremost construction material, is an alloy of iron, containing between 0.2% and 2% carbon (by weight).
What is Cobalt?
What is cobalt? Cobalt is a shiny, brittle metal that is used to produce strong, corrosion and heat resistant alloys, permanent magnets and hard metals.
A Short History of Steel: Part II
The growth of railroads during the 19th century in both Europe and America put great pressure on the iron industry, which still struggled with inefficient production processes. Yet steel was still unproven as a structural metal and production was slow and costly. That was until 1856, when Henry Bessemer came up with a more effective way to introduce oxygen into molten iron in order to reduce the carbon content.
Definition of Critical Temperature
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
What is Austenitic Stainless Steel?
What is Austenitic Stainless Steel? Austenitic steels are non-magnetic stainless steels that contain high levels of chromium and nickel, and low levels of carbon. Known for the formability and resistance to corrosion, austenitics are the most widely used grade of stainless steel.
Metal Profile: Tin
Tin is a soft, silvery-white metal that is very light and easy to melt. Being so soft, tin is rarely used as a pure metal.
Definition of Gauge Length
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Top Tens: The World's Largest Metal Producers
Below are lists of the largest producers of various metals. Lists are compiled based on physical production of each metal (unless otherwise noted), and not on any commercial valuation (e.g. sales, revenues, market capitalization).
Metal Profile: Stainless Steel
The term 'stainless steel' refers to a group corrosion resistant steels that contain a minimum of 10.5 percent chromium. Once this threshold content of chromium is added...
Copper History Pt. I
Copper is considered to be one of the first metals to be used by humans. The main reason for its early discovery and use is that copper can naturally occur in relatively pure forms.
Metal Profile: Titanium
What is titanium? Titanium is a strong and lightweight refractory metal. Alloys of titanium are critical to the aerospace industry but, due to their numerous unique properties, are also used in medical, chemical and military applications, as well as in sporting goods.
How are Metal Prices Determined?
Metal prices are not only important to manufacturers and end-users, but have long been used as a tool for monitoring economic and market conditions. But how do markets determine metal prices?
About Metals Glossary
Glossary of metal terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
stainless, steel, 200, series, austenitic,...
The 200 series is a class of austenitic stainless steels that are characterized by having a low-nickel content. They are also referred to as chrome-manganese (CrMn) stainless steel.
Learn How to Make a Steel Barrel BBQ
As far as backyard metal projects go, what could be more appropriate for a long summer day than a barrel barbecue? For myself, a great project has two qualities: It is inexpensive to make and is practical to use. A barrel barbecue is both, and can be completed easily in one day.
Malleability
Definition of the material property of malleability.
Process Annealing
Definition of the heat treatment process of process annealing.
Metals & Magnetism
What are magnets? Magnets are materials that produce magnetic fields, which attract specific metals. Every magnet has a north and a south pole. Opposite poles attract, while like poles repel.
Precipitation Hardening
Definition of the heat treatment process of precipitation hardening.
Definition of Welding
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Corrosion Control Checklist
Originally produced by the UK Department of Industry on the advice of the Corrosion Education and Training Working Party, so as to guide engineers, designers and anyone working with structural metals.
What is Metallurgical Coal?
Metallurgical coal, also known as coking coal, is used to produce coke, the primary source of carbon used in steelmaking.
Definition of Critical Cooling Rate
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
The 10 Biggest Aluminum Producers 2013
The world's ten largest aluminum producers (by output) accounted for over 26 million metric tons of primary aluminum in 2013, or about 52 percent of total global output.
What is Bismuth?
What is bismuth? Bismuth is a silvery and brittle metal that is frequently found in low-melt alloys. Demand for bismuth metal has grown over the past 20 years in large part due to its effective use as a substitute for lead.
Metals to Avoid for Body Piercing and Implants
Metals to Avoid for Body Piercing and Implants There are only a few types of metals suitable for body
Metal Profile: Chromium
What is chromium? Chromium metal is most widely recognized for its use in chromium plating (which is often referred to simply as 'chrome'), but its largest use is as an ingredient in stainless steels. Both applications benefit from chromium's hardness, resistance to corrosion and ability to be polished for a lustrous appearance.
Definition of Toughness
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Metals and Commodities Prices - Page 7
Current and historical metal prices, from your About.com Guide. The most comprehensive online guide for the metal industry including material buyers guides, global supplier lists, e-commerce sites, software & shareware, industry news, and metallurgical data.
Rhenium Prices
Prices indicated below reflect the prices published on the first day of each month per one pound (454g) of rhenium.
Free Metalworking Projects and Plans - Page 2
Free metalworking plans, drawings and instructions for do-it-yourself metal shop projects from your About.com Guide
What is Palladium? History and uses of a rare...
What is palladium? Palladium is a soft, rare platinum group metal (PGM) that is valued for its catalytic properties.
Cupronickel
What is cupronickel? Cupronickel (also referred to as “cupernickel” or copper-nickel alloy) refers to a group of copper-nickel alloys that utilize iron and manganese and are used in saltwater environments due to their corrosion resistant properties.
posco, steel, metal, korea
Established in 1968, Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO) operates two integrated steel mills in South Korea and a joint venture with U.S. Steel (USS-POSCO) in California. According to the World Steel Association, POSCO was the world’s third biggest producer of crude steel in 2010 (after ArcelorMittal and Baosteel), manufacturing over 30 million tonnes.
Definition of Grain Size Measurement
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Strain
: Strain is the definition of how much a material has been stretched (or compressed) when compared to
Royalty Free Metals Photo Gallery
Royalty Free Metals Photo Gallery Free digital metals photos for any personal or commercial use. Images
Definition of Ore
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Normalising
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
What are Minor Metals?
What are minor metals? The term 'minor metals' is used to describe about 40 elemental metals that are normally produced as by-products and not traded on any major exchanges.
Strength
Definition of the material property of strength.
Definition of SG Iron
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Patina
'Patina' is a term that refers to the blue-green layer of corrosion that develops on the surface of copper when exposed to sulfur and oxide compounds. As copper is exposed to natural or human-induced corrosive attack, its color changes from the iridescent, golden red normally associated with copper to a deep brown and, finally, a blue-green hue.
The 10 Biggest Silver Producers
The world's ten largest silver producers accounted for over 270 million ounces of the metal in 2012, or approximately 35 percent of global mine production. Beside each company name is the country where its primary operations are located and its total silver production (millions of ounces) in 2012.
What are Metal Alloys?
What are metal alloys? Alloys are metallic compounds composed of one metal and one or more metal, or non-metal, elements. Examples of common alloys include...
metals, manganese, properties, characteristics,...
What is manganese? Manganese is a key component in the production of steel. Although classified as a minor metal, the quantity of manganese produced worldwide each year falls behind only iron, aluminum, copper and zinc.
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Free go-cart plans and instructions. Build your own go-carts, scooters, motorbikes, all terrain vehicals.
Free Metalworking Projects and Plans - Page 3
Free metalworking plans, drawings and instructions for do-it-yourself metal shop projects from your About.com Guide
How to Write a Metals Business Plan
Article explaining the essential components and strategies you need to write a successful business plan in the metals industry. Covers formatting, common mistakes and advanced considerations.
Metal Reference Prices
Below are a list of links to reference metal prices. Price sources include the London Metal Exchange, Johnson Matthey Base Prices for platinum group metals (PGMs), Engelhard Industrial Bullion Prices and the London Bullion Market Association.
Toughness
Definition of the material property of toughness.
Wrought Iron Products Page-10
Sources of wrought iron products, fabricators and related information from your About.com Guide.
The Iron Ore Market Explained
As a necessary input for the production of primary steel, iron ore feeds the world's largest metal market and the backbone of global infrastructure.
How Mail-in Cash for Gold Companies Work
As the price of gold continues to rise, it seems that new companies wanting to purchase old gold pieces appear everyday. It is not unsurprising that the current combination of high unemployment and record high gold prices has created an ideal environment for these mail-in cash for gold companies. But how do they work? And, more importantly, do these companies really pay you for what your gold pieces are worth?
What is Iron?
What is iron? Iron's use by humans dates back about 5000 years. It is the second most abundant metal element in the earth's crust and is primarily used to produce steel, one of the most important structural materials in the world.
Definition of Fatigue
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Ferritic Steel
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
What is zinc?
Zinc is a lustrous bluish-grey metal that is primarily used to galvanize iron and steel in order to protect against...
What is Iron Ore?
Iron ore is a vital input material in the production of primary steel. Relative abundance of the minerals hematite (Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4) make...
Definition of Mechanical Properties
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Heat Number
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Aluminum Killed Steel
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Platinum Production
Like the platinum along the banks of the Pinto river, the metal is most often naturally occurs in placer deposits. Platinum and PGMs miners, however, usually extract the metal from sperrylite and cooperate; two platinum containing ores.
Definition of Springback
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Allotropy
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Alloy
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Metal Hydrides
Definition of the materials known as metal hydrides.
What Is Tin?
Complete tin profile with physical properties, history, market information, common alloys and interesting facts.
Metals on the Mars Rover Curiosity
Here is just a snapshot of some of the metals used in the construction of Curiosity and the transport vehicle:
Lithium Production
In order to extract lithium from brines, the salt-rich waters must first be pumped to the surface into a series of evaporation ponds where solar evaporation occurs over a number of months. Because salar brines naturally occur at high altitudes and in areas of low rainfall, solar evaporation is an ideal and cost-effective method for precipitating salts.
Properties and Composition of 201 Stainless
Type 201 is part of the 200 series of austenitic stainless steels. Originally developed to conserve nickel this family of stainless steels is characterized by low-nickel content. Type 201 can substitute for type 301 in many applications, but is less corrosion resistant than its counterpart, particularly...
Free Go-Kart Plans and Designs - Page 3
Free go-cart plans and instructions. Build your own go-carts, scooters, motorbikes, all terrain vehicals.
Tin Prices 2014
Contracts for steel billets have been traded on the London Metal Exchange (LME) since 2008. These were the first ferrous contracts to be offered by the LME. The prices listed below are based on the daily cash buyer contract prices settled at the LME averaged for each month.
Metal Profile: Mercury
What is mercury? Mercury, or 'quicksilver' as it is otherwise known, is a dense, toxic metal element that exists in liquid form at room temperature. Produced and studied for millennia, mercury's use has steadily declined since the 1980s as a result of greater attention to the negative health impacts that it has on humans and the environment.
Everything to know about copper
What is copper? Copper is a ductile and malleable base metal that is valued for its high thermal and electrical conductivity. Easily identifiable because of its iridescent, golden red color, copper and its alloys, such as bronze, have been used by humans for thousands of years. Due to its effectiveness as an electrical conductor, copper is now most often found in related applications, including in the wiring for our homes and offices, and in the circuitry, connectors and components that make virtually all electronic devices function.
Definition of Fatigue Testing
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Hardness
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Beijing's Bird's Nest Stadium
The Beijing National Stadium - more often referred to as the Bird's Nest stadium - took five years to complete and was constructed using 42,000 tons of steel, making it the largest steel structure in the world. Measuring 330 meters long, 220 meters wide and 69.2 meters tall, the design of the Bird's Nest stadium design is based on 24 trussed columns, weighing 1000 tons each.
Definition of Annealing
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Metallurgy
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Cryogenic Heat Treatment
Definition of the cryogenic heat treatment process.
The 10 Biggest Steel Producers 2013
Total crude steel production in 2013 exceeded 1.6 billion metric tonnes, up 3.5 percent from 2012. Statistics below are collected by the World Steel Association and...
Company Profile: KGHM Polska Miedź S.A.
KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. is one of Poland's largest companies with over 28,000 employees and gross revenues over US$ 3 billion. KGHM operates three mines, Lubin, Rudna and Polkowice-Sierszowice, that produced 426 thousand metric tons of copper and 1200 metric tons of silver in 2010, making it one of the largest copper and silver producers in the world.
The 10 Biggest Silver Producers 2013
The world's ten largest silver producers accounted for over 290 million ounces of the metal in 2013, or just over 35 percent of global mine production. The list below...
Definition of Hardenability
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Definition of Hardening
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.
Go-Kart Plans For Sale - Page 6
Free go-cart plans and instructions. Build your own go-carts, scooters, motorbikes, all terrain vehicals.
Definition of Impact Test
Glossary of metal industry terminology and definitions from your About.com Guide.

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